Future selves: The 2×2 Model
Language learners have an image of who they want to be in future. This image can act as a powerful motivational force that drives the learner to pursue the lifelong and challenging but enjoyable and life-changing adventure of learning a second language. My research on this topic has led to many publications include two recent and groundbreaking ones featuring The 2×2 Model of Future L2 Self-Guides and set the stage for theoretically meaningful motivational interventions in the language classroom.
Tahmouresi, S., & Papi, M. (2021). Future selves, enjoyment and anxiety as predictors of L2 writing achievement. Journal of Second Language Writing, 53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2021.100837
Papi, M. & Khajavy., G. H. (2021). Motivational Mechanisms Underlying Second Language Achievement: A Regulatory Focus Perspective. Language Learning 71(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12443
Papi, M. Bondarenko, A., Mansouri, S., Feng, L., & Jiang, C. (2019). Rethinking L2 Motivation Research: The 2×2 model of L2 self-guides. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263118000153
regulatory focus and mode theories
My research has shown learners’ chronic motivational dispositions such as their regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) and mode (Kruglanski et al., 2000) lead to qualitative differences in learners’ second language learning goals, emotions, behaviors and second language complexity, accuracy, and fluency.
Papi, M. & Khajavy., G. H. (2021). Motivational Mechanisms Underlying Second Language Achievement: A Regulatory Focus Perspective. Language Learning, 71(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12443
Teimouri, Y., Papi, M., & Tahmouresi, S. (2021). How do L2 learners differentially pursue their motivational goals? The theory of L2 self-regulatory mode. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263121000413
Jiang, C., & Papi, M. (2021). The motivation-anxiety interface in language learning: A regulatory focus perspective. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijal.12375
regulatory fit theory
The match between one’s chronic or situational regulatory focus and the task they complete can contribute to learner’s task engagement and performance. This is an exciting research topic that can have many implications for second language classrooms.
Papi. M. (2018). Motivation as quality: Regulatory fit effects on incidental vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226311700033X
Papi, M. (2016). Motivation and learning interface: How regulatory fit affects incidental vocabulary learning and task experience. Michigan State University. https://doi.org/doi:10.25335/M5R79Q
language Learning Mindsets and achievement goals
Do you believe that your language learning ability is fixed or malleable through effort? You may not be aware that believing one way or another seems to have serious implications for how you view the world, achievement situations, effort, failure, and success, among other things. This is the core of Dweck’s (1999) theory of mindsets (implicit theories of intelligence), which I have applied to language learning. In addition, achievement goals seem to be closely related to the mindsets. We have found that learners with a growth mindset follow learning goals as well as performance-approach goals whereas those with a fixed mindset pursue performance goals only. Our studies have shown that language learning mindsets and achievement goals have meaningful impact of learners’ emotional, motivational, and behavioral patterns.
Papi, M., Wolff, D., Nakatsukasa, K., & Bellwoar, E. (2021). Motivational factors underlying learner preferences for corrective feedback: Language mindsets and achievement goals. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F13621688211018808
Ozdemir, E., & Papi, M. (2021). Mindsets as sources of L2 speaking anxiety and self-confidence: The case of international teaching assistants in the U.S. Innovations in Language Learning and Teaching, 34. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2021.1907750
Waller, L. & Papi, M. (2017). Motivation and feedback: how implicit theories of intelligence predict L2 writers’ motivation and feedback orientation. Journal of Second Language Writing, 35, 54-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2017.01.004
Feedback-seeking behavior in second language learning
Learners are not passive recipients of corrective feedback. They are proactive agents of the learning process and their will and motivation play the main role in the success of the feedback process. We have recently offered this novel and learner-oriented perspective towards corrective feedback, recast as feedback-seeking behavior (FSB). Our studies show that learners’ motivational charactersitics strongly predict their FSB. We are also investigating the link between FSB and language learning outcomes.
Papi, M. Rios, A., Pelt, H., & Ozdemir, E. (2019). Second language learners’ feedback-seeking behaviour: Basic components and motivational antecedents. The Modern Language Journal. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12538
Papi, M. Bondarenko, A., Wawire, B., Jiang, C., & Zhou, A. (2019). Second language writers’ feedback-seeking behaviour: Motivational mechanisms. Reading & Writing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-019-09971-6